CV: Intention is to be a full record of your career history. Long, static, more detailed, clear chronological order. Covers your education as well as any other accomplishments like publications, awards, honors, etc. Usually used to apply for academic and research positions.
Resume: Intention is to be a targeted list of your skills and achievements. Short, no particular format rule or order, highly customisable, typically spanning 1-2 pages. The goal of a resume is to make a job seeker stand out from other job applicants, and is best utilized to apply for non-research, non-academic positions.